Saturday, June 6, 2020
WritersÃ¢â¬â¢ Workshop WritersÃ¢â¬â¢ Workshop Writing is easy, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why so many people are doing it. But the definition of writing successfully is different for everyone, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why being successful in the industry is such a difficult thing to achieve. There quite simply isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a magic pill or answer. While a writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop can be infinitely helpful, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not the be all and end all for success. But there are some things that you can do to increase the likelihood that you will write successfully. 1. Schedule Time and Write Something Every Day. Find your peak writing times! The best way to do this is to collect a wide variety of resources that will help you to write SOMETHING, Every. Single. Day. Consider resources such as: a kitchen timer or computer app timer writing prompts brainstorm techniques word count challenges Even fantastic writers fail if they cannot master the discipline of writing regularly. Once you identify your peak writing times, make a schedule that takes advantage of these. Be protective of this time. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let even family members intrude upon it. 2. Create a Space to Write Create yourself a writing haven. A place that is apart from or at least free from distractions that other members of the household may bring. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be fancy or cost a lot of money. But make it a special place. Sacred. 3. Use Life as Your Inspiration Writing is about sharing information with others, itÃ¢â¬â¢s about telling a story, itÃ¢â¬â¢s about perspective. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about life. To write successfully typically involves getting other people to read what you write. One of the best ways to keep your writing fresh and engaging is to observe real-life people and situations and use those notes to make your characters and stories come alive. 4. Read Voraciously Read Regularly. The more you read, the better you will be able to see where other writers may have engaged you or lost you in the story. When you are reading, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to pay attention to mechanics such as word selection, dialogue, sentence length, pacing, plotting, and character development. Being aware of these elements can help you write better. You will also begin to see patterns and will know instinctively what things work and what things donÃ¢â¬â¢t. All of this then shows in your writing. Read about writing. Learn from those who have come before you and try not to make the same mistakes. Read about mechanics such as spelling, grammar, and word choice but also read about theory and inspiration. Read about how to write not just from those authors who got it right but also from those who admit to getting it wrong. 5. Know Your Message Be clear at the start about what you want to say. The best way to do this is to reflect on why you are writing in the first place. Are you trying to share information with your reader, telling a story, or trying to inspire? Each of these purposes requires a different approach when writing. You may not always know what youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to write but the why is critical. If you can outline your writing before you start, it may help. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve written your piece, make sure you are clear on what your story is about. Practice telling others about your story and perfect your pitch. The clearer you are about your message and what your writing is about, the better you will be able to market it to others. 6. Share Your Message with Others Now that you know your message and have perfected your pitch, get used to putting your work out there. Use a good writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop that focuses on critique to get motivated, push outside your comfort zone, hear different ideas, and gain support and enthusiasm. Listen to feedback from others and do your best to learn from it. Take advantage of a second and more objective set of eyes to help you see what you might have missed in your editing. 7. Get the Mechanics Right Every story, whether fiction or non-fiction, has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Non-fiction work, even short articles have an introduction, some clear points, and a conclusion. Often good writers can be derailed by getting the mechanics wrong. Do what you can to make sure that the mechanics of your story donÃ¢â¬â¢t detract from your message. Practice seamlessly weaving backstory rather than Ã¢â¬Å"dumpingÃ¢â¬ it during introductory pages Edit Systematically; create an editing checklist and use it when editing your work Watch for your Ã¢â¬Å"go toÃ¢â¬ words or phrases and swap them for less used words Check singular versus plural noun agreement Limit your use of adverbs Watch for frequently used words like Ã¢â¬Å"although, finally, again, just, another, back, etc. Choose your tense and be consistent (avoid passive voice) Watch for lapses in point of view (switching from 1st person to 2nd person, etc.) Follow Submission Guidelines 8.Prepare for WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Block Even the best writers can be devastated by writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a real thing, and it can wreak havoc on your writing schedule and your self-esteem. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know a writer alive who hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t experienced writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block on a regular basis. If this is a regular issue for you, find a writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop that specifically deals with busting writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block. The difference between being a beginning writer and a professional writer is how you deal with writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block: Allow for it in your work schedule and donÃ¢â¬â¢t panic when it hits Use tools and exercises to break the block. Do something else Freewrite or use word association Research your next article or chapter instead Retype or Rewrite Write about not writing (rant) Pick something and read Explain the problem youÃ¢â¬â¢re up against to a stuffed animal 9. Love What You Do One of the main reasons many people write is because they enjoy it. When you are starting out, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to get sidetracked from that enjoyment. One of the key things you will learn in any writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop is to love what you do. Will it always be joy and sunshine when you are writing? Nope. But you should love what you do most of the time. If you find yourself tearing your hair out daily, think about what it is that is driving you mad and do what you can to make writing enjoyable again. Write for clients if you must make money from your writing. But make sure you also write for yourself and stay true to yourself when writing. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll find that the words come so much easier when you are doing something you love. 10. Face your Fear The last tip that you will likely hear in a writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop is to face your fear. Some writers have a fear of failure, which is completely normal. Other writers have a fear of success or a fear of changeÃ¢â¬âalso normal. When you are writing, the most empowering thing you can do is to face whatever fear you have and overcome it. You grow as a writer every time you overcome fear. The same is true for your characters if you are writing fiction. Your characters will be bolder and more realistic if you write about them facing their fears and overcoming them. So, if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to get into a writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop right now, do not despair. Focus on mastering the 10 tips for beginners that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve outlined above. As you master these, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find that your writing improves and when you do finally get to take that writersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshop, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be even better prepared to learn everything that you can from it.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
A Prison Within: Depression and Rape There are millions of people in the world that have different illnesses. Depression is a very common mental illness. Many people have experienced depression at some point in their lives. The American Psychological Association states that Ã¢â¬Å"People with depression may experience a lack of interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.Ã¢â¬ I was 18 years old around the time I had my first serious episode of depression. I was depressed about an attempted rape that almost occurred at a party. Fortunately I had good friends and family to help me be able to talk about my problems. I did however become open about what was happening to me. Additionally, I found out that I was at risk for depression because there are people in my family with Bipolar Disorder which can cause depression. There are many different forms of depression which are also called mood disorders. The common misconception is that depression is only in one form. You could have Dysthymia, Major Depressive Disorder, or Cyclothymia. Dysthymia is very long lasting but not as severe as MDD. Major Depressive Disorder is a serious condition in which the characteristics of normal depression are felt more extremely. Cyclothymia is another name for Bipolar Disorder because at one point youÃ¢â¬â¢reShow MoreRelatedNegative Effects Of Rape1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommitted specifically rape. About 86,000 cases of rape are reported annually in the U.S alone (Seth)! On of the most frequently committed acts of sexual violence is rape. Damaging effects of rape can be life long. Whether or not these effects are visible to the physical eye, they can alter and deeply impact a person s life. According to Samantha Gluck victims of rape experience both short and long-term psychological effects of rape. One of the short term effects of rape is Post Traumatic StressRead MoreSpeak by Laurie Halse Anderson Essay1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreason to call, only Melinda knows the real reason. Even if they cared to know the real reason, there is no way she could tell them. A personal rape story is not something that flows freely off the tongue. Throughout the story Melinda describes the pain she is going through every day as a result of her rape. The rape of a teenage girl often leads to depression. Melinda is convinced that nobody understands her, nor would they even if they knew what happened that summer. Once a happy girl, Melinda isRead MoreExamining Effectiveness Of Treatment Strategies Used With Survivors Of Rape1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTreatment Strategies Used With Survivors of Rape Therapy for survivors of rape is often difficult to obtain. The lack of availability of counselors who specialize in specific trauma treatments, like prolonged exposure and cognitive-processing therapy, as well as lack of insurance and location, are hardships for treatment-seeking individuals. Therefore, it is important to pinpoint the most effective treatments for those who have suffered the trauma of rape. The purpose of this research is to outlineRead MoreCarter Hamel. Mrs. Day. Honors 9Th Literature And Composition1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCarter Hamel Mrs. Day Honors 9th Literature and Composition - 4 25 April 2017 Trials and Tribulations The Great Depression was the perfect breeding ground for fear and chaos. The United States was drastically impacted, and no one could escape its wrath! The Great Depression not only affected the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and way of life, but it also had a huge impression on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and attitudes. Life was a daily struggle, and Americans had to adapt and cope during hard times. People feared theRead MoreThe Long Term Effectiveness Of Prolonged Exposure Therapy1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesintervention efficacy specific to only sexual assault and rape are presently minimal in comparison to intervention examinations of combination or other types of trauma (Regehr, Alaggia, Dennis, Pitts, Saini, 2013). Psychotherapeutic interventions that fail to differentiate sexual assault and rape victims from other types of trauma victims may decrease the treatment effectiveness or inadvertently harm participants in this subgroup. Trauma associated from rape or sexual assault differs f rom other forms of traumaRead MoreThe Long Term Effectiveness Of Prolonged Exposure Therapy712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesintervention efficacy specific to only sexual assault and rape are presently minimal in comparison to intervention examinations of combination or other types of trauma (Regehr, Alaggia, Dennis, Pitts, Saini, 2013). Psychotherapeutic interventions that fail to differentiate sexual assault and rape victims from other types of trauma victims may decrease the treatment effectiveness or inadvertently harm participants in this subgroup. Trauma associated from rape or sexual assault differ from other forms of trauma;Read More The Tragedy of Date Rape988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesExemplary Essay - The Tragedy of Date Rape In the fall of 1995, Kristin Cooper was a sophomore at Baker University in Kansas. She was a member of Alpha Chi Omega, an expert skier from the mountains of Colorado, a swimmer, and was active in band, choir and drama. On the night of New Years Eve of that same year, her mother Andrea Cooper came home to find Kristina dead of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head on the family room floor. Cooper shared the story of her daughters last monthsRead MoreThe Use Of Trauma Informed Practice Using Social Work Practice1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesClients who have experiences rape in the past can deal with traumatic reposes after the event. Many of them have to deal with the effect of the rape, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clients may feel that they are held back because of the trauma that happened to them. Clients could feel helpless and be reminded every day of the trauma that they had to endure. The topic of this paper is the use of trauma informed practice using social work practice in women whoRead MoreThe Times Of Conflict : A Study Of Kashmir Essay1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Psychological Depression in the times of Conflict: A study of Kashmir Introduction: The Physical, Social and Mental health are central to life and all of these are deeply interdependent and entwined. Depression, currently ranked fourth among the most urgent health problems worldwide by WHO and predicted to become number two in terms of its disease burden, is more likely to be a result of various experiences like Conflict, Instability, Loss and Experiences of Humiliation, Disruptions, OppressionRead MorePersuasive Essay On Rape1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesridiculed at an alarming rate. Many students have become increasingly fearful when attending their daily classes. Rape and date rape are serious problems that can lead to possible traumatization, depression, and suicide. Women are the main target of this kind of abuse, but men have also been known to suffer. Colleges have implemented new programs to help educate students about the risks of date rape, but they lack in their effectiveness to keep the students interested. Most of the courses are mandatory to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ASSIGNMENT OF PM TOPIC: VIABILITY OF NEWS CHANNELS IN INDIA [pic] SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: MR. SATINDER KUMAR SURJEET SINGH (LECTURER) MBA II (D) 5918 SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES PUNJABI UNIVERSITY, PATIALA INTRODUCTION TELEVISION NEWS media is one of the most important catalysts that has an invariably important role to play in shaping up public opinions, sentiments, and dogmas by promulgating accurate and desirable information and knowledge. Due to its vast intrusion in public life, it has the power of creating an enduring impact on society and culture of a region. Today, TV news channels in India are facing a qualitative crisis pertaining to disseminated content in the packageÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In other words we can say that these are popular in metro cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai etc. these channels can be seen in small cities. But these are not as important in small cities as in big cities. Level of news given by English news channels If there is a issue about the level of news channels. then English news channels are very appropriate. News given by these news channels are 90% real. English news channels give real news as much as possible. so it can be said that these are better than Hindi news channels. However news channels have much importance in metropolitan cities but we come to small cities, there are some problems occur because more than 65% Indian population live in villages nearby areas. They are mostly illiterate in these areas . English is beyond their thinking. HINDI NEWS CHANNELS Ã¢â¬ ¢ AZAD NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ NDTV INDIA Ã¢â¬ ¢ ZEE NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ AAJ TAK Ã¢â¬ ¢ DD NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ SAHARA SAMAY Ã¢â¬ ¢ TEZ Ã¢â¬ ¢ INDIA TV Ã¢â¬ ¢ INDIA NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ P-7 NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ STAR NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ LIVE INDIA Ã¢â¬ ¢ CNEB Ã¢â¬ ¢ NEWS 24 Ã¢â¬ ¢ A TO Z NEWS Ã¢â¬ ¢ FOCUS TV Ã¢â¬ ¢ IBN-7 Ã¢â¬ ¢ TOTAL TV Ã¢â¬ ¢ TV100 VIABILITY OF HINDI NEWS CHANNELS: Hindi is the national language of India. It is the most spoken language of India also. So most people prefer to watch Hindi news channels. The list of Hindi news channels is very long. But only a few of them give relative information. There is no objection by the la to broadcast any channel. So most private channels have made it as a
Question: Give detailed descriptionabout James Hardie Industries Ltd. Answer: Introduction A lot of has been published previously about the James Hardie case. This case today we will study is related to the infamous James Hardie Industries Ltd is a company which deals in building industrial materials. The company is situated in Ireland region in Australia. Back in May 2012 the director of the company, James Hardie was detected by the court to be breaching his duties. The director allegedly confirmed and notified a false ASX announcement which related to the foundation of a set up for compensating individuals suffering from asbestos related ailments. He declared there was funding adequacy in this set up which was an entirely false confirmation made from the end of the director.(Robertson 2012) James Hardie was amongst one of the many companies which were dealing in the mining of asbestos. It was in the mid 20th century when the industry witnessed the company to become the largest manufacturer of building materials,products,pipes,brake linings and insulations. The Asbestos plants are located in varied places in Australia in NSW,Victoria,Southern Australia, Queensland and western Australia. Gradually workers working in the Asbestos plant started showing pleural asbestos from the material used called Fibro. Such pleural abnormalities witnessed were known as Asbestosis and Malignant Mesothelioma. (Wiki) The firms in this group majorly participated in making products based on asbestos during the years 1920s. In Australia asbestos based products were used extensively as building materials. The company was responsible to contribute to around 70% of asbestos consumption in the country. Asbestos however is injurious to the health. It contains fibres that results in diseases like lung cancer even. These fatal diseases do not manifest instantly. Decades past for them to develop in the human body and one fine day comes out big. (Hargovan 2012). Duties and Responsibilities of the Director Breached James Hardie, the director of the James Hardie Industries Ltd started restructuring of the company. This involved the moving of its base offshore. The liabilities faced by the firm regarding asbestos related illness was high. Two companies under the James Hardie ownership which was liable for such growing ailments was expelled in the midst of this restructuring. This was to protect Hardies image in the entire matter.The company also funded a Medical Research and Compensation firm to research more about the illness. The director was supposed to announce and inform the market about such restructuring or ASX. Any kind of company restructuring or reforming affects its price, value and shares. In the year 2011, the company announced that it was fully funded and is having sufficient funds for fulfilling all the claims of legitimate nature. However, the reality was something else. The foundation soon was exposed to be short of funding thus proving director James Hardie to be breaching his d uties to be truth full about the companys plans and facts. (Robertson 2012) The New South Wales Supreme Court initially found that 3 senior executives and 7 non executive level Directors have breached their obligations of statutory nature under section 180(1) of the Corporations Act 2001. The jury of the NSW Supreme Court was backed by 7 more reverend judges.(Govrik 2012). Decisions of the court on the James Hardie case It was in the year 2003 month of Dec when the Foundation gave out a warning message that it is facing a serious shortfall of fundings. In a few year it will not be able to pay any claims arising in relation to the asbestos compensation fund. In 2004 the NSW Bob Carr hired David Jackson the QC to undergo an investigation. The main point of investigation was to find out the relation in between the Hardie group company restructuring and the shortfall of funding. It also included the provision to check whether corporate law was needed for ensuring the claims in the future and how will they be met. The investors of the hardie group denied any such wrong doings. The inquiry suggested the following: The MD or managing director of the James Hardie Industry in the year 2001 was prosecuted to make inquiry regarding whether the Foundations can meet all claims in future The advisory of Hardie Group, Allens Arthur Robinson breached duty in relation to the company restructure. It also lead to the cancellation of part payment of paid shares. Inquiry for the adviser Trowbridge who acted in a negligent manner while estimating the future funding needed by the Foundation. High court has ruled in its sessions that the executive and non executive directors breached corporate law by making statements which were misleading in nature regarding the asbestos compensation fund of the company. In the various court proceedings made by the ASIC, J Gzell it was found that while making the announcement James Hardie has got himself and the other directors involved in deceptive conducts. It was also found that the successor JHINV was also involved in deceptions and misleading conducts for some investor road shows. The court declared non executive directors, chief executive, chief financial officer and the secretary or general counsel of the Joint company all breaching their official duties. Non executive directors of James Hardie Industries Ltd Mr Shafron, JHINV and Mr Morley made appeals to the New South Wales Supreme Court as individual appellants to their judgement passed on the 17th of December 2010. (Austin 2012) The High Court passes the decision that these members including chair woman Meredith Hellicar was involved in this breach of making misleading falsified statement to the Share market in year 2001. The company said it had a fully functional plan to provide compensation. But in reality the underfunded amount of the company was over $5.1 billion. The company faced total bankruptcy. ASIC or the Australian Securities and Investments won their initial round in the NSW Court. Directors were fined. They were also banned to be serving as Board members for 5 years. In 2010 this ruling was overturned by their appeal. The court later returned this appeal as it wanted to decide on the matters which lay outstanding and penalties. The director James Hardie informed he was unsure how much the ruling will be costing to the company. The decision of the High Court which definitely will have a cost implication and it will be known only when the outstanding issues are judged by the court. The ASIC body of judges warns any director who is misleading investors. (Anonymous, NSW News 2012 The ASIC has made appeals to the High Court. It was for the Court of Appeals final decision given to the NEDs. These cross appeals and appeals about Mr Shafron, Mr Morley and others were withdraw. JHINV made no appeals. High Court made allowance on an unanimous basis for the ASICs appeal towards the NEDs. The following joint decision was made by CJ Gunmoq, Crennan, Bell JJ and Kiefel:- The minutes of the board meeting held in February was powerful proofs favouring the case of ASIC. The directors were stated to be approving market announcements made although it was not recorder or in document within a month's time as per s251A. It is assumed that a civil prosecutor usually has a fair judgement. ASIC never contravened any duties present in relation to the case. Mr Robb is most unlikely to give any evidence that will work in favour of the NEDs. ASIC was also discharged any burden of finding evidence about the Feb board meeting where directors approved market notifications. (Robin 2012) Due to the shortfall of funds faced by the organization a crucial issue arises that to what extent is the liabilities of the prosecution be traceable based on the overseas assets of the Hardie Group. This also includes the Netherland based parent firm JHINV. Despite the solid feature of the restructure of the company and the counsel assisting such inquiries it has been suggested that the JHINV was actually a shadow director for the Australian company ABN 60. The claims of ABN 60 were enforceable for JHINV. Chairman of ASIC Greg Medcraft stated that in this case for the regulator it has become a very important case as it has hit markets right in their heart. The information Australians received can be relied on as per what he said in the Melbourne Media conference. Decisions that raised for the directors considering their duties to be completely onerous was denied. As per them it was a timely reminder about the duty. Overall the companies in Australia have high levels of governance in the corporate level. Medraft said to the court that there will be a deterrent effect which makes sense to all Australians where they needs to take care about the accuracy of various statements made by company director for the market. The law firms representing the asbestos victims also positively welcome such decisions. As per Maurice Blackburn and Theodora Ahilas who were primary in the asbestos case, they stated that the misleading statements made by James Hardie cause false assumptions by the community about what amount of money or fund is kept aside for compensation of asbestos. This led to high stress and confusions in many of the clients of asbestos. The company finally is held accountable for the poor nature of its governance which is a good thing. Still the highest number of people suffering from asbestos is yet to be calculated in Australia. The last model used for such calculations basing itself from the deaths occurring due to mesothelioma somewhere ranges in between 2014 and 2021. The worst part is that this disease does not show itself instantly. The actual count of people who will die is yet to be traced as the disease takes decades to showcase its symptoms. The Hardies as stated by the lawyers was a story of a misleading community. AT first they misleaded the community about the dangerous products and its side effects. And then the entire world about its ability to fulfill claims from compensations of asbestosis victims. References Robertson. McCullough 2012, High Court confirms breach of duties by James Hardie directors, Australia. Govrik.Tony De 2012, The James Hardie case: risk, reputation and business ethics. Hargovan. Anil 2012, CORPORATE GOVERNANCE LESSONSFROM JAMES HARDIE, Case Note. Anonymous, NSW News 2012, James Hardie directors breached duties: court. Austin. Robin 2012, The High Court decides the James Hardie case.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Political forms of Ancient India Political forms of Ancient India The Indian sub-continent was the home of one of the earliest civilizations of man. In the history of ancient India we see many forms of society ranging from urban civilization of Indus Valley to the Classical Age of Gupta Dynasty. During this period we see a hierarchy of centralized and decentralized government. Some of which were highly organized in their political structure and government while others were merely weakened by internal problems and division of power. Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's oldest and greatest civilizations which took shape around 3000 BC to 2500 BC in the valley of the Indus River. Remains of more than 100 cities, towns, and villages of the Indus Valley civilization have now been found from north of the Hindu Kush down the entire length of the Indus and beyond into peninsular India. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro are the two urban centers of Indus Valley civilization and the excavation of these sites reveal standardization and ordered society and ten centuries of relatively stable conditions. The city was amazingly well planned with broad main streets and good secondary streets. The houses of these cities were solidly built of bricks and many were multi-storied and equipped with bathrooms and lavatories. The high quality of the pottery, along with hoards of gold and silver found at Indus Valley sites, suggest great accumulation of wealth. Each city was laid out on a grid plan with a high citadel and a lower city of domestic dwellings. Urban planning is evident in the neat arrangement of major buildings contained in the citadel, including the placement of a large granary and water tank or bath at right angles to one another. The lower city, which was tightly packed with residential units, was also constructed on a grid pattern consisting of a number of blocks separated by major cross streets. The cities had an elaborate public drainage system. Sanitation was provided through an extensive system of covered drains running through the length of the main streets and connected by chutes with most residences. All these archeological evidences uncovered a strong centralized authority. The urban civilization of Indus Valley suggests a complex planning that undertook the region and the people lived up to the standard of the time. The Indus civilization appears to have declined rapidly in the early 2d Millennium BC. Archeological remains further indicate intermittent and devastating floods around this time and possible invasions by the Aryans, whose epics refer to their conquest of walled cities. The Aryans are said to have entered India through the fabled Khyber pass, around 1500 BC and gave rise to another civilization in Indian history, the Vedic period. The Aryans are believed to have developed the Sanskrit language and made significant inroads into the religion of the time. All these factors were to play a fundamental role in the shaping of Indian culture. The Aryans did not have a script but they developed a rich tradition. They composed the hymns of the four vedas, the great philosophic poems that are at the heart of Hindu thought. The Aryans were divided into tribes, which had settled in different regions of northwestern India. Tribal chiefmanship gradually became hereditary, though the chief usually operated with the help of advice from either a committee or the entire tribe. Tribal chiefs bearing the title Raja or king were at first little more than war-lords, and their principal duty was protection of their tribes. The power of the king positioned with the higher authority of the priests. Vedic kingship was the natural outcome of the conditions surrounding the Aryans. A king was the leader of the people in the war of aggression and defense. He is called the "Protector of the people". A study of the Rigveda shows that the king was no longer merely a leader of a primitive tribe, but occupied a position of per-eminence among the people. The protection of the people was the sacred duty of the king. In return, he expected and received loyal obedience from his subjects in the sense of a tribute to the king. With work specialization, the internal division of the Aryan society developed along caste lines. Their social framework was composed mainly of the following groups: the Brahmana (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaishya (agriculturists) and Shudra (workers). The Brahmanas were referred to as the receivers of gift. The Vaishyas had to pay tribute for the lands that they got from the Kshatriya nobles. It was, in the beginning, a division of occupations; as such it was open and flexible. Much later, caste status and the corresponding occupation came
Sunday, March 15, 2020
3 Things the Novelist Can Learn From the Copywriter 3 Things the Novelist Can Learn From the Copywriter 3 Things the Novelist Can Learn From the Copywriter By Guest Author As a copywriter, I have access to two of the greatest writing improvement tools in existence: practice and feedback. I spend 40 hours a week pumping out words that will be tweaked, replaced, moved, cut, checked, rechecked, and rejected or selected. Every red mark on my ad copy teaches me how to improve my fiction. Here are a few things Ive learned. 1. Clarity The number one rule is Get the Message Across. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t sacrifice clarity for cleverness, or even for grammar. If it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get your message across, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not as clever as you think it is; itÃ¢â¬â¢s certainly not correct. After all, grammar exists to preserve clarity. The second it fails to do so, throw it out the window. For instance, the Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t end sentences with prepositionsÃ¢â¬ rule often results in a mutilated catastrophe, which Winston Churchill so aptly illustrated when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"This is the kind of errant pedantry up with which I shall not put!Ã¢â¬ 2. Brevity As a novelist, I never worried about being concise. In fact, I strove to write as long a book as possible, thinking it would never be a real novel unless it was good and thick. I pushed until I crossed 100,000 words. But as a copywriter, IÃ¢â¬â¢m constantly trimming words to fit the 30-second radio spot, the half-page ad, the 25-character Adwords headline. This was a nuisance at first, but then I realized something: shortening my writing made every word count Ã¢â¬â and thus made every word hit harder. The best way to learn this rule is to force yourself; take the first chapter of your book and cut 100 words. Or 500. Start by doing a word search for Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"veryÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find you can cut most of those. (Ã¢â¬Å"Omit unnecessary wordsÃ¢â¬ also happens to be Strunk WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s Rule #17.) 3. Brainstorming One of the ways I half-jokingly describe my job is Ã¢â¬Å"I sit around and think stuff up.Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s another truth I never fully grasped until I became a copywriter: take time just to think. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t always expect great ideas or solutions to come to you out of the blue. You have to sit down at a blank page or Word document and focus; not on writing, but on coming up with ideas. Maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢re outlining plot, or naming the book, or developing a character. Whatever it is, a brainstorming session can work wonders. Write down every idea that you have, even if it sounds dumb. If you have a major problem or plot hole, find someone else to brainstorm with Ã¢â¬â your critique partner works well for this. As you work together, your creative power will grow exponentially. About the Author: Stephanie Orges is a writer at the Balcom Agency in Fort Worth, where she drafts radio, print and web copy for a variety of clients including Justin Boots, Southwest Bank and the Neeley School of Business at TCU. On her blog, BeKindRewrite, she offers writing advice and explores the philosophy of writing. She is currently working on her first novel. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Fiction Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Possessive of Proper Names Ending in SList of Greek Words in the English LanguagePhrasal Verbs and Phrasal Nouns
Thursday, February 27, 2020
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